After getting a stable display, I like to implement the routines for displaying the score. You can see that in the first builds of Frantic, Medieval Mayhem, and Space Rocks. Even though we're not ready to show the player's score, the display is very useful for showing diagnostic information - such as this build of Frantic which uses it to show which sprites are colliding with the player.
To draw the score we're going to use the playfield graphics. The playfield pattern is comprised of 20 bits stored in 3 bytes of the TIA.
- PF0 - only the upper 4 bits are used, and they're output in reverse order
- PF1 - all 8 bits are used, output as you'd expect
- PF2 - all 8 bits are used, output in reverse order
Andrew Davie posted this rather nice diagram in his 2600 Programming For Newbies tutorial which shows how that works:
The 20 bits are either repeated or reflected to draw the 20 bits on the right half of the screen.
For our game a two digit score and a two digit timer will meet our requirements. We could show a single digit each in PF1 and PF2, but due to the reversed output of PF2 that would mean we'd need to create both normal and mirrored digit graphics. Instead, we're going to create digit graphics that are 3 bits across, which will allow us to show two digits using PF1. You may have seen the graphics in my prior blog entry with the revised mode file for jEdit. Each digit appears twice as we can use a simple mask to get the tens (AND #$F0) and ones(AND #$0F) digits. If we only saved the image as the ones position we'd need to apply 4 shift instructions to create a tens position image.
PF1 is displayed twice on the screen and if we time it correctly we can change the contents of PF1 so that both sides of the screen are different. Andrew Davie posted another handy diagram that shows the timing:
In looking at the diagram we can figure out the update times required for each instance of PF1
- left PF1 - need to update on or after cycle 66 of the prior scanline, or on or before cycle 28 of the current scanline
- right PF1 - need to update on or after cycle 39 and on or before cycle 54 of the current scanline
As mentioned before, the RIOT chip in the Atari 2600 stands for RAM, Input/Output and Timer. For this update we're going to look at the RAM and Input.
In order to show the score we need to keep track of a few things, so let's allocate some space in RAM:
ORG $80 ; Holds 2 digit score, stored as BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Score: ds 1 ; stored in $80 ; Holds 2 digit timer, stored as BCD Timer: ds 1 ; stored in $81 ; Offsets into digit graphic data DigitOnes: ds 2 ; stored in $82-$83, DigitOnes = Score, DigitOnes+1 = Timer DigitTens: ds 2 ; stored in $84-$85, DigitTens = Score, DigitTens+1 = Timer ; graphic data ready to put into PF1 ScoreGfx: ds 1 ; stored in $86 TimerGfx: ds 1 ; stored in $87 ; scratch variable Temp: ds 1 ; stored in $88
Vertical Blank is now doing a little bit of work:
VerticalBlank: jsr SetObjectColors jsr PrepScoreForDisplay rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
When the macro CLEAN_START initialized the Atari's hardware, it set all the colors to black. So we need to set the object colors if we want to see anything. This routine also reads the state of the console switches (via one of RIOT's Input registers) in order to determine if the player selected Color or Black & White:
SetObjectColors: ldx #3 ; we're going to set 4 colors (0-3) ldy #3 ; default to the color entries in the table (0-3) lda SWCHB ; read the state of the console switches and #%00001000 ; test state of D3, the TV Type switch bne SOCloop ; if D3=1 then use color ldy #7 ; else use the b&w entries in the table (4-7) SOCloop: lda Colors,y ; get the color or b&w value sta COLUP0,x ; and set it dey ; decrease Y dex ; decrease X bpl SOCloop ; Branch PLus (positive) rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine Colors: .byte $86 ; blue - goes into COLUP0, color for player0 and missile0 .byte $C6 ; green - goes into COLUP1, color for player1 and missile1 .byte $46 ; red - goes into COLUPF, color for playfield and ball .byte $00 ; black - goes into COLUBK, color for background .byte $0E ; white - goes into COLUP0, B&W for player0 and missile0 .byte $06 ; dark grey - goes into COLUP1, B&W for player1 and missile1 .byte $0A ; light grey - goes into COLUPF, B&W for playfield and ball .byte $00 ; black - goes into COLUBK, B&W for background
The score and timer will be stored using BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) but for now we'll treat and display them as hexadecimal values (that's why the digit graphics are 0-9 then A-F). This routine takes the upper and lower nybble (4 bits) of the Score and Timer and multiplies them by 5 in order to get the offset into the digit graphic data. The 6507 does not have a multiply command, though it does have a shift feature which is equivalent to *2. If a nybble is value X then X * 2 * 2 + X is the same as X * 5:
PrepScoreForDisplay: ; for testing purposes, change the values in Timer and Score inc Timer ; INCrement Timer by 1 bne PSFDskip ; Branch Not Equal to 0 inc Score ; INCrement Score by 1 if Timer just rolled to 0 PSFDskip: ldx #1 ; use X as the loop counter for PSFDloop PSFDloop: lda Score,x ; LoaD A with Timer(first pass) or Score(second pass) and #$0F ; remove the tens digit sta Temp ; Store A into Temp asl ; Accumulator Shift Left (# * 2) asl ; Accumulator Shift Left (# * 4) adc Temp ; ADd with Carry value in Temp (# * 5) sta DigitOnes,x ; STore A in DigitOnes+1(first pass) or DigitOnes(second pass) lda Score,x ; LoaD A with Timer(first pass) or Score(second pass) and #$F0 ; remove the ones digit lsr ; Logical Shift Right (# / 2) lsr ; Logical Shift Right (# / 4) sta Temp ; Store A into Temp lsr ; Logical Shift Right (# / 8) lsr ; Logical Shift Right (# / 16) adc Temp ; ADd with Carry value in Temp ((# / 16) * 5) sta DigitTens,x ; STore A in DigitTens+1(first pass) or DigitTens(second pass) dex ; DEcrement X by 1 bpl PSFDloop ; Branch PLus (positive) to PSFDloop rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
The Kernel's been modified so it now uses the data in DigitOnes and DigitTens to update PF1. Each line of graphic data is output twice so the digits are drawn over 10 scanlines which gives them a better appearance than if they had been drawn over 5 scanlines.
ldx #5 ScoreLoop: ; 43 - cycle after bpl ScoreLoop ldy DigitTens ; 3 46 - get the tens digit offset for the Score lda DigitGfx,y ; 5 51 - use it to load the digit graphics and #$F0 ; 2 53 - remove the graphics for the ones digit sta ScoreGfx ; 3 56 - and save it ldy DigitOnes ; 3 59 - get the ones digit offset for the Score lda DigitGfx,y ; 5 64 - use it to load the digit graphics and #$0F ; 2 66 - remove the graphics for the tens digit ora ScoreGfx ; 3 69 - merge with the tens digit graphics sta ScoreGfx ; 3 72 - and save it sta WSYNC ; 3 75 - wait for end of scanline ;--------------------------------------- sta PF1 ; 3 3 - @66-28, update playfield for Score dislay ldy DigitTens+1 ; 3 6 - get the left digit offset for the Timer lda DigitGfx,y ; 5 11 - use it to load the digit graphics and #$F0 ; 2 13 - remove the graphics for the ones digit sta TimerGfx ; 3 16 - and save it ldy DigitOnes+1 ; 3 19 - get the ones digit offset for the Timer lda DigitGfx,y ; 5 24 - use it to load the digit graphics and #$0F ; 2 26 - remove the graphics for the tens digit ora TimerGfx ; 3 29 - merge with the tens digit graphics sta TimerGfx ; 3 32 - and save it jsr Sleep12 ;12 44 - waste some cycles sta PF1 ; 3 47 - @39-54, update playfield for Timer display ldy ScoreGfx ; 3 50 - preload for next scanline sta WSYNC ; 3 53 - wait for end of scanline ;--------------------------------------- sty PF1 ; 3 3 - @66-28, update playfield for the Score display inc DigitTens ; 5 8 - advance for the next line of graphic data inc DigitTens+1 ; 5 13 - advance for the next line of graphic data inc DigitOnes ; 5 18 - advance for the next line of graphic data inc DigitOnes+1 ; 5 23 - advance for the next line of graphic data jsr Sleep12 ;12 35 - waste some cycles dex ; 2 37 - decrease the loop counter sta PF1 ; 3 40 - @39-54, update playfield for the Timer display bne ScoreLoop ; 2 42 - (3 43) if dex != 0 then branch to ScoreLoop sta WSYNC ; 3 45 - wait for end of scanline ;--------------------------------------- stx PF1 ; 3 3 - x = 0, so this blanks out playfield sta WSYNC ; 3 6 - wait for end of scanline
Score and Timer:
when TV Type switched to B&W:
You'll notice that the score and timer are different colors even though they're both drawn using the playfield. This is because I've modified the Vertical Sync subroutine to turn on SCORE mode. SCORE mode tells TIA to use the color of player0 for the left half of the playfield and the color of player1 for the right half.
VerticalSync: lda #2 ; LoaD Accumulator with 2 so D1=1 ldx #49 ; LoaD X with 49 sta WSYNC ; Wait for SYNC (halts CPU until end of scanline) sta VSYNC ; Accumulator D1=1, turns on Vertical Sync signal stx TIM64T ; set timer to go off in 41 scanlines (49 * 64) / 76 sta CTRLPF ; D1=1, playfield now in SCORE mode... rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
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